France had declared war on Great Britain and the Dutch Republic in November 1792 and did the same on Spain in March 1793; in the spring of 1793, Austria and Prussia invaded France; in March, France created a "sister republic" in the "Republic of Mainz". Louis XIV also revoked the Edict of Nantes, forcing thousands of Huguenots into exile. Summers are cool, short and dry, while winters are very cold and snowy. After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers. The monarchy reached its peak during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (27 August 1789) France established fundamental rights for men. Its continental part covers about 1000 km from north to south and from east to west. These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed. During the 17th century, Madame de La Fayette published anonymously La Princesse de Clèves, a novel that is considered to be one of the first psychological novels of all times. In the context of the Cold War, de Gaulle pursued a policy of "national independence" towards the Western and Eastern blocs. In 1940, France was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany and Italy. [195] Extensive tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe[196] (representing 20% of the EU's agricultural production)[197] and the world's third biggest exporter of agricultural products. Anzahl der Personen pro Quadratkilometer in jedem Land in 2020. How to conduct European clinical trials from the Paris Region ? For other uses of "La France", see, • Metropolitan France, estimate as of November 2020, Source gives area of metropolitan France as 551,500 km, It has been suggested that this section be. [105][106], Like all European Union state members, France agreed to cut carbon emissions by at least 20% of 1990 levels by the year 2020,[107] compared to the United States plan to reduce emissions by 4% of 1990 levels. France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St. James, or to Lourdes, a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées that hosts several million visitors a year. [293], To this day, the government is prohibited from recognizing any specific right to a religious community (except for legacy statutes like those of military chaplains and the local law in Alsace-Moselle). France is an outlier among developed countries in general, and European countries in particular, in having a relatively high rate of natural population growth: by birth rates alone, it was responsible for almost all natural population growth in the European Union in 2006. EU agriculture subsidies to France have decreased in recent years but still amounted to $8 billion in 2007. [381] France is in 2013 the 2nd exporter of films in the world after the United States. [40] Nevertheless, the situation improved in the first half of the 4th century, which was a period of revival and prosperity for Roman Gaul. [130] The Constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958. His son, Pepin the Short, seized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty. These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such as the Aquitaine basin in the southwest and the Paris basin in the north, the latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such as the silt beds of Beauce and Brie. [405] As of 2011[update], 75% of French had a favourable view of the United States, making France one of the most pro-American countries in the world. Francis Poulenc's best known works are his piano suite Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919), the ballet Les biches (1923), the Concert champêtre (1928) for harpsichord and orchestra, the opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1957), and the Gloria (1959) for soprano, choir and orchestra. 10.16 %: loading . [203], France, especially Paris, has some of the world's largest and most renowned museums, including the Louvre, which is the most visited art museum in the world (5.7 million), the Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million), mostly devoted to Impressionism, and Centre Georges Pompidou (1.2 million), dedicated to contemporary art. The coastlines offer contrasting landscapes: mountain ranges along the French Riviera, coastal cliffs such as the Côte d'Albâtre, and wide sandy plains in the Languedoc. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications. [215] The Paris region is enveloped with the most dense network of roads and highways that connect it with virtually all parts of the country. [43] Teutonic tribes invaded the region from present-day Germany, the Visigoths settling in the southwest, the Burgundians along the Rhine River Valley, and the Franks (from whom the French take their name) in the north.[44]. [446], The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. [290][291] The current Jewish community in France is the largest in Europe and the third-largest in the world after Israel and the United States, ranging between 480,000 and 600,000, about 0.8% of the population as of 2016. [400] French television was partly liberalized in the next two-decade with the creation of several commercial channels, mainly thanks to cable and satellite television. Cities affected by this climate: Belle Île, Saint-Brieuc. Fearing that the king would suppress the newly created National Assembly, insurgents stormed the Bastille on 14 July 1789, a date which would become France's National Day. All annual budgets. [145] In 2015, France was described as being "the best networked state in the world", because it is a country that "is member of more multi-lateral organisations than any other country". [299][300] In 2011, France spent 11.6% of GDP on health care, or US$4,086 per capita,[301] a figure much higher than the average spent by countries in Europe but less than in the United States. France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise[183][184] with substantial state enterprise and government intervention. Under Louis XV, Louis XIV's great-grandson, France lost New France and most of its Indian possessions after its defeat in the Seven Years' War (1756–63). [49] French knights also made up the majority in both the Hospital and the Temple orders. [21] France's total land area, with its overseas departments and territories (excluding Adélie Land), is 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi), 0.45% of the total land area on Earth. In the same year, French companies invested $220 billion outside France, ranking France as the second largest outward direct investor in the OECD, behind the United States ($311 billion), and ahead of the UK ($111 billion), Japan ($128 billion) and Germany ($157 billion).[187][188]. Other French artists with international careers have been popular in several countries, most notably female singers Dalida, Mireille Mathieu, Mylène Farmer,[365] Alizée and Nolwenn Leroy,[366] electronic music pioneers Jean-Michel Jarre, Laurent Garnier and Bob Sinclar, later Martin Solveig and David Guetta. In 1974, after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations[399][400] remained under state-control. France, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. [127] Three communes—Paris, Lyon and Marseille—are subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissements. Results by programme. In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. [131] It greatly strengthened the authority of the executive in relation to Parliament. In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornaments. In 1795, the government seemed to return to indifference towards the desires and needs of the lower classes concerning freedom of (Catholic) religion and fair distribution of food. Note: various other time zones are observed in overseas France. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice. [321] The most important cultural sites are run by the government, for instance through the public agency Centre des monuments nationaux, which is responsible for approximately 85 national historical monuments. French explorers, such as Bougainville and Lapérouse, took part in the voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around the globe. Download data 2000-2019. The only other countries having similar units are Spain (the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio, was founded in 1920) and Luxembourg (foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish). World War I left 1.4 million French soldiers dead, 4% of its population. Over the following year the Allies and the French Resistance emerged victorious over the Axis powers and French sovereignty was restored with the establishment of the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF). The UNESCO inscribed 45 sites in France on the World Heritage List.[322]. A meal often consists of three courses, hors d'œuvre or entrée (introductory course, sometimes soup), plat principal (main course), fromage (cheese course) or dessert, sometimes with a salad offered before the cheese or dessert. In the 20th century, French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings in France. France has historical and strong links with cinema, with two Frenchmen, Auguste and Louis Lumière (known as the Lumière Brothers) credited with creating cinema in 1895. Ravel's piano compositions, such as Jeux d'eau, Miroirs, Le tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuit, demand considerable virtuosity. From the 17th to the mid-20th century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe. Native speakers of other languages made up the remaining 5.2% of the population.[288]. [289] Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. The Age of Enlightenment was marked by the work of biologist Buffon and chemist Lavoisier, who discovered the role of oxygen in combustion, while Diderot and D'Alembert published the Encyclopédie, which aimed to give access to "useful knowledge" to the people, a knowledge that they can apply to their everyday life. The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.[387]. [23][24] It has been suggested that the meaning "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation,[25] or more generally because they had the status of freemen in contrast to servants or slaves. [59] During Louis XIV's minority and the regency of Queen Anne and Cardinal Mazarin, a period of trouble known as the Fronde occurred in France. Donnerstag, 10. [87] During the 1970s France faced economic crisis and allowed new immigrants (mostly from the Maghreb)[87] to permanently settle in France with their families and to acquire French citizenship. France has 11 million square kilometres (4.2×10^6 sq mi) of marine waters within three oceans under its jurisdiction, of which 97% are overseas. France in February 1794 abolished slavery in its American colonies, but would reintroduce it later. It is currently estimated that 40% of the French population is descended at least partially from the different waves of immigration the country has received since the early 20th century;[265] between 1921 and 1935 alone, about 1.1 million net immigrants came to France. As Guy Canivet, first president of the Court of Cassation, wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms); one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years.[135]. Later kings would expand their directly possessed domaine royal to cover over half of modern continental France by the 15th century, including most of the north, centre and west of France. Since 1903, France is famous for its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race. Dezember 2020, Woche 50. Rationalist philosophers such as Victor Cousin and Auguste Comte, who called for a new social doctrine, were opposed by reactionary thinkers such as Joseph de Maistre, Louis de Bonald and Félicité Robert de Lamennais, who blamed the rationalist rejection of traditional order. ", Sylvia Zappi, "French Government Revives Assimilation Policy", in Migration Policy Institute. Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse. [24], The etymology of *Frank is uncertain. Clovis I was the first Germanic conqueror after the fall of the Roman Empire to convert to Catholic Christianity, rather than Arianism; thus France was given the title "Eldest daughter of the Church" (French: La fille aînée de l'Église) by the papacy,[45] and French kings would be called "the Most Christian Kings of France" (Rex Christianissimus). The new Rafale F3 aircraft will gradually replace all Mirage 2000N and SEM in the nuclear strike role with the improved ASMP-A missile with a nuclear warhead. The Algerian independence came at a high price; the large toll on the Algerian population. To this end, he withdrew from NATO's military integrated command (while remaining in the NATO alliance itself), launched a nuclear development programme, and made France the fourth nuclear power. Various routes of natural passage, such as the Rhône valley, allow easy communications. Approximately 77% of health expenditures are covered by government funded agencies. In 2017, France was the fourth-largest donor (in absolute terms) of development aid in the world, behind the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom. France has a long and varied musical history. Since 2016 France is mainly divided into 18 administrative regions: 13 regions in metropolitan France (including the territorial collectivity of Corsica),[125] and five located overseas. [248] Average life expectancy at birth is 82.2 years, the ninth highest in the world. France is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the Eurozone,[21] and a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie. [302], Care is generally free for people affected by chronic diseases (affections de longues durées) such as cancer, AIDS or cystic fibrosis. "[A workman is known by his chips].[344]. During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe. [15] An inadequate financial model and inequitable taxation system as well as endless and costly wars to maintain its predominant position, the Seven Years' War and American War of Independence among them, left the heavily indebted kingdom in a precarious situation by the end of the 18th century. The Germanic Franks arrived in 476 and formed the Kingdom of Francia, which became the heartland of the Carolingian Empire. [422] Moreover, each region of France has iconic traditional specialities: Cassoulet in the Southwest, Choucroute in Alsace, Quiche in the Lorraine region, Beef bourguignon in the Bourgogne, provençal Tapenade, etc. [408] A French publication, the Michelin guide, awards Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments. • The ice cap climate (EF) is found in all the mountainous regions of France that have a glacier. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a collection of Celtic tribes. Optionen: 26 Mio. In the 1990s and 2000s (decade), electronic duos Daft Punk, Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.[365][367][368]. Thereafter his army disintegrated through supply problems, disease, Russian attacks, and finally winter. [355] His Meditations on First Philosophy changed the primary object of philosophical thought and raised some of the most fundamental problems for foreigners such as Spinoza, Leibniz, Hume, Berkeley, and Kant. France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory. [117] There are nine national parks[118] and 46 natural parks in France,[119] with the government planning to convert 20% of its Exclusive economic zone into a Marine protected area by 2020. Metropolitan France has a wide variety of topographical sets and natural landscapes. [336] Some of the most impressive provincial baroque architecture is found in places that were not yet French such as the Place Stanislas in Nancy. In France, it is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal (religion, patriotism, respect for authority) shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal (secularism, individualism, sexual revolution). The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in 1959 helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public. In 600 BC, Ionian Greeks from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille), on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. It was only in 1981 that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio. [16] France is a developed country with the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the tenth-largest by PPP. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces (gendarmes are career soldiers), and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces, it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned. Einwohner frankreich 2020 — alle ferientermine für frankreich 2020 sorgfältig recherchiert und tabellarisch Also rund 23'000 Menschen mehr. The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance. Best-selling daily national newspapers in France are Le Parisien Aujourd'hui en France (with 460,000 sold daily), Le Monde and Le Figaro, with around 300,000 copies sold daily, but also L'Équipe, dedicated to sports coverage. See the map, stats, and news for areas affected by COVID-19 on Google News For example, after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, William the Conqueror added "King of England" to his titles, becoming both the vassal to (as Duke of Normandy) and the equal of (as king of England) the king of France, creating recurring tensions. Frage: Wie viele Einwohner hat Frankreich ungefähr? The Roman de Renart, written in 1175 by Perrout de Saint Cloude, tells the story of the medieval character Reynard ('the Fox') and is another example of early French writing. France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south central and Pyrenees in the southwest. In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct, and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower. . Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. [352] Important writers of the 20th century include Marcel Proust, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Albert Camus, and Jean-Paul Sartre. became the dominant force, overtaking both Socialists and Republicans. Statistics on Spanish immigrants in France show a growth of 107 percent between 2009 and 2012, i.e. [389] In the past years, free dailies made a breakthrough, with Metro, 20 Minutes and Direct Plus distributed at more than 650,000 copies respectively. [103][104] According to the 2018 Environmental Performance Index conducted by Yale and Columbia, France was the second-most environmentally-conscious country in the world (after Switzerland), compared to tenth place in 2016 and 27th in 2014. [227] A face transplant was first done on 27 November 2005[228][229] by Dr. Bernard Devauchelle. France has 37 sites inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List and features cities of high cultural interest, beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity (green tourism). Hopefully, you’ll be... 30 November | Team VRGC. [123] As of 2019[update] there are 54 PNRs in France.[124]. France: Strict Defamation and Privacy Laws Limit Free Expression – Index on Censorship | Index on Censorship. That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy. Known as the Belle Époque, the turn of the century was a period characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity and technological, scientific and cultural innovations. [109] The country was set to impose a carbon tax in 2009 at 17 euros per tonne of carbon emitted,[110] which would have raised 4 billion euros of revenue annually. Human Rights Day. [199] That same year, France sold 33.4 billion euros of transformed agricultural products. [340] France's largest financial district is La Defense, where a significant number of skyscrapers are located. Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style. Januar 2018 02:48 . [404], According to a poll in 2011, the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion. The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments. Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). Summers are pleasantly warm and wet, while winters are very cold and snowy. 3). [48] His descendants—the Capetians, the House of Valois, and the House of Bourbon—progressively unified the country through wars and dynastic inheritance into the Kingdom of France, which was fully declared in 1190 by Philip II of France (Philippe Auguste). Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception. . During that same century, Charles Perrault was a prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss in Boots, Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty and Bluebeard. For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. An important 16th-century writer was François Rabelais, whose novel Gargantua and Pantagruel has remained famous and appreciated until now. In September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced King Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the French absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. Opération Chammal, France's military efforts to contain ISIS, killed over 1,000 ISIS troops between 2014 and 2015.[95][96]. Other authors are known, for example Chrétien de Troyes and Duke William IX of Aquitaine, who wrote in Occitan. The second is offered in high schools (lycée) and finishes in national exams leading to a baccalaureate (baccalauréat, available in professional, technical or general flavors) or certificate of professional competence (certificat d'aptitude professionelle). Places affected by this climate: Cauterets Courchevel, Alpe d'Huez, Les 2 Alpes, Peyragudes, Val-Thorens. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the Government of France. Performance and transparency. Girdlestone p. 14: "It is customary to couple him with Couperin as one couples Haydn with Mozart or Ravel with Debussy. In 2004, the Institut Montaigne estimated that within Metropolitan France, 51 million people were White (85% of the population), 6 million were Northwest African (10%), 2 million were Black (3.3%), and 1 million were Asian (1.7%). [306] [391][392] The sector of weekly magazines is stronger and diversified with more than 400 specialized weekly magazines published in the country. [151], As a significant hub for international relations, France hosts the second largest assembly of diplomatic missions in the world and the headquarters of international organisations including the OECD, UNESCO, Interpol, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, and la Francophonie.[152]. Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynasty, but his kingdom would not survive his death. [353] As of 2014[update], French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nation. [18][19] It remains a great power in global affairs,[20] being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and an official nuclear-weapon state. [332] Northern France is the home of some of the most important Gothic cathedrals and basilicas, the first of these being the Saint Denis Basilica (used as the royal necropolis); other important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres and Notre-Dame d'Amiens. Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past (criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited). ", Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, close economic and military connections with France, permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, regained the southwest from the Visigoths, History of France § Revolutionary France (1789–1799), murdered between 1,000 and 1,500 prisoners, History of France § Napoleonic France (1799–1815), History of France § Long 19th century, 1815–1914, Provisional Government of the French Republic, the French overseas departments and territories, Learn how and when to remove this template message, warm-summer mediterranean continental climate, cool-summer mediterranean continental climate, Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party, French Section of the Workers' International, Journal officiel de la République française, 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, listed many religious movements as dangerous cults, banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools, wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public, permanent members of the UN Security Council, International Bureau of Weights and Measures, Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie, National Active Non-Commissioned Officers School, Directorate-General for External Security, permanent member of the Security Council of the UN, fifth biggest military spender in the world, financial institutions cooperatively owned by their customers, List of French inventions and discoveries, method for the acquisition of scientific knowledge, fourth country to achieve nuclear capability, the French National Institute of Statistics. Although 60% of municipalities are classified as having seismic risks, these risks remain moderate. Tensions between the kingdom of France and the Plantagenet empire would last a hundred years, until Philip II of France conquered, between 1202 and 1214 most of the continental possessions of the empire, leaving England and Aquitaine to the Plantagenets. Antiquity (6th century BC–5th century AD), High and Late Middle Ages (10th–15th century), UNESCO World Heritage Sites and protected areas, For information about regional languages see. "La France" redirects here. [266] The next largest wave came in the 1960s, when around 1.6 million pieds noirs returned to France following the independence of its Northwest African possessions, Algeria and Morocco. [357] Debussy's music is noted for its sensory content and frequent usage of atonality. French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighboring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland, Monaco and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south, and the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas. Web. (Note: There are significant differences between the metropolitan population figures just cited and those in the following table, which indicates the population of the communes). The French Republic is divided into 18 regions (located in Europe and overseas), five overseas collectivities, one overseas territory, one special collectivity – New Caledonia and one uninhabited island directly under the authority of the Minister of Overseas France – Clipperton.