It is believed that DAN antagonizes GDF5, GDF6 and GDF7. TGF-beta-signalvägen är en signaltransduktionsväg som aktiveras av ligander i TGF-beta-superfamiljen, bland annat TGF-beta eller transforming growth factor beta, BMPs eller bone morphogenetic proteins, m.fl. SMAD4) and forms a complex with one. Transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) is a secreted protein known as a cytokine that performs many cellular functions and has a vital role during embryonic development (alternative names: Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, G-TSF, BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor, Polyergin, Cetermin).It is an extracellular glycosylated protein. [1] It is a multifunctional signaling molecule with more than 40 related family members. As R-SMADs son un tipo de proteína SMAD reguladas por receptores. [7] SARA orients the R-SMAD such that serine residue on its C-terminus faces the catalytic region of the Type I receptor. 전환성장인자 베타 (轉換生長因子, Transforming growth factor-beta, TGF-β )는 TGF-β 초가계 에 속하는 사이토카인 으로, 사람의 몸 안에서 다양한 작용을 수행할 수 있다. It is also involved in G1 arrest in the cell cycle. TGF-β (z angl. TGF-β plays a role in a wide array of cellular processes including early embryonic development, cell growth, differentiation, motility, and apoptosis. [18] TSP-1 activates latent TGF-beta [19] by forming direct interactions with the latent TGF-β complex and induces a conformational rearrangement preventing it from binding to the matured TGF-β. [12] After its secretion, it remains in the extracellular matrix as an inactivated complex containing both the LTBP and the LAP which need to be further processed in order to release active TGF-β. [9][14] It resides in the nucleus and upon TGF beta receptor activation translocates to the cytoplasm where it binds the type I receptor. Follistatin also is implicated in prostate cancers where mutations in its gene may preventing it from acting on activin which has anti-proliferative properties. 컴퓨터를 이용하여 모델링한 tgf-β의 구조. There are five receptor regulated SMADs: SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD5, and SMAD9 (sometimes referred to as SMAD8). Activin causes the transcription of mRNAs involved in gonadal growth, embryo differentiation and placenta formation. It is believed that FKBP12 and its homologs help to prevent type I receptor activation in the absence of a ligands, since ligand binding causes its dissociation. Diseases associated with TGFB1 include Camurati-Engelmann Disease and Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Immunodeficiency, And Encephalopathy.Among its related pathways are Simplified Interaction Map Between LOXL4 and Oxidative Stress Pathway and Transcriptional activity of SMAD2/SMAD3-SMAD4 heterotrimer. It serves as a negative regulator of TGF beta signaling and may limit tgf-beta expression during embryogeneis. Hill, New insights into TGF-β-Smad signalling, Trends Biochem Sci 29 (2004), pp. Der Transforming Growth Factor (Abk.TGF, deut. SMAD7 competes with other R-SMADs with the Type I receptor and prevents their phosphorylation. The TGF beta family include: TGFβ1, TGFβ2, TGFβ3. This article on a gene on human chromosome 11 is a stub. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a potent cell regulatory polypeptide homodimer of 25kD. [4] These receptors are serine/threonine kinase receptors. O factor de crecemento transformante beta 1 (TGF-β1) é un polipéptido membro da superfamilia do TGF beta de citocinas. Receptor de TGF beta 1; Receptor de TGF beta 2; Receptor de TGF beta 3; Algúns investigadores propuxeron que existen dous receptores adicionais que son o tipo IV (TGF-βR4) de 60 kDa e o tipo V (TGF-βR5) de 400 kDa, identificados só en células da pituitaria. 컴퓨터를 이용하여 모델링한 tgf-β의 구조. [28] This pathway has been demonstrated for activation of TGF-β in epithelial cells and does not associate MMPs. Receptor de TGF beta 1; Receptor de TGF beta 2; Receptor de TGF beta 3; Algúns investigadores propuxeron que existen dous receptores adicionais que son o tipo IV (TGF-βR4) de 60 kDa e o tipo V (TGF-βR5) de 400 kDa, identificados só en células da pituitaria. Obvykle se uvádí tři, [1] jindy až pět [2] zástupců TGF-β rodiny (typické jsou nicméně TGF-β1 , TGF-β2 a TGF-β3 ). It requires BMP signaling for its expression. Moreover, the structural differences within the LTBP’s provide different latent TGF-β complexes which are selective but to specific stimuli generated by specific activators. [14] Furthermore, specific LTBP isoforms have a propensity to associate with specific TGF-β isoforms. Regardless of involving MMPs, this mechanism still necessitate the association of intergrins and that makes it a non protolylic pathway. [2] In mammals there are seven known type I receptors and five type II receptors.[3]. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is an important mediator of tissue repair. and Roberts, A.B., Editors, 1990. Structure modification of the LAP can lead to disturbing the interaction between LAP and TGF-β and thus activating it. Mice lacking LTBP-3 or LTBP-4 demonstrate phenotypes consistent with phenotypes seen in mice with altered TGF-β signaling. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. They are both found in the dorsal lip of Xenopus and convert otherwise epidermis specified tissue into neural tissue (see neurulation). TGF-β는 3가지의 서로 다른 단백질 동위체로 구성된다. Der Transforming Growth Factor (Abk.TGF, deut. O factor de crecemento transformante beta 3 (TGF-β3) é unha proteína que nos humanos está codificado polo xene TGFB3 do cromosoma 14. Each class of ligand binds to a specific type II receptor. For example, LTBP-4 is reported to bind only to TGF-β1,[15] thus, mutation in LTBP-4 can lead to TGF-β associated complications which are specific to tissues that predominantly involves TGF-β1. TGF-β was rapidly activated after in vivo radiation exposure ROS. The Type II receptor phosphorylates serine residues of the Type I receptor, which activates the protein. SMURF1 binds to SMAD1 and SMAD5 while SMURF2 binds SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD6 and SMAD7. Plasmin and a number of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a key role in promoting tumor invasion and tissue remodeling by inducing proteolysis of several ECM components. The binding of the R-SMAD to the type I receptor is mediated by a zinc double finger FYVE domain containing protein. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. The Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. [29], Because MMP-2 and MMP-9 can activate TGF-β through proteolytic degradation of the latent TGF beta complex,[8] αV containing integrins activates TGF-β1 by creating a close connection between the latent TGF-β complex and MMPs. É unha proteína segregada que realiza moitas funcións celulares, como o control do crecemento celular, proliferación celular, diferenciación celular e apoptose.En humanos, o TGF-β1 stá codificado polo xene TGFB1 do cromosoma 19. O factor de crecemento transformante beta 2 (TGF-β2) é unha proteína segregada que funciona como citocina e realiza moitas funcións celulares e ten un papel vital durante o desenvolvemento embrionario.Outros nomes que recibe son: factor supresor de células T derivado do glioblastoma [1], G-TSF, inhibidor do crecemento das células BSC-1, polierxina, cetermina. are synthesized as precursor molecules containing a propeptide region in addition to the TGF-β homodimer. [13] Mutation or alteration of LAP or LTBP can result in improper TGF-β signaling. SMAD6 binds SMAD4 preventing the binding of other R-SMADs with the coSMAD. Transformierender Wachstumsfaktor) ist ein zu den Zytokinen zählendes Signalmolekül. TGFBR1 is its human gene. There are four different LTBP isoforms known, LTBP-1, LTBP-2, LTBP-3 and LTBP-4. TGFβ superfamily ligands bind to a type II receptor, which recruits and phosphorylates a type I receptor. [3] The attachment of TGF-β to the LTBP is by disulfide bond which allows it to remain inactive by preventing it from binding to its receptors. Transforming growth factor beta type 1 (TGF beta-1) belongs to the superfamily of TGF beta proteins which includes bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), avidins, inhibins, TGF beta proteins and several others. Bone morphogenetic proteins cause the transcription of mRNAs involved in osteogenesis, neurogenesis, and ventral mesoderm specification. TGF-β plays a role in a wide array of cellular processes including early embryonic development, cell growth, differentiation, motility, and apoptosis. Tamén actúa como factor de crecemento autócrino . The Type I receptor phosphorylates the serine residue of the R-SMAD. [11], In most cases, before the LLC is secreted, the TGF-β precursor is cleaved from the propeptide but remains attached to it by noncovalent bonds. Drug-based antagonists have also been identified, such as SB431542,[11] which selectively inhibits ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7. Factors that may cause such modification may include hydroxyl radicals from reactive oxygen species (ROS). A desregulación da activación de TGF-β e a sinalización pode ter como resultado a apoptose . The transforming growth factor receptor 3 (TGFBR3) is the most abundant of the TGF-β receptors yet,[12] it has no known signaling domain. These receptors bind growth factor and cytokine signaling proteins such as TGFβs (TGFβ1, TGFβ2, TGFβ3), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth differentiation factors (GDFs), activin and inhibin, myostatin, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and NODAL. Transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-1‎ (1 F) Type I TGF-beta receptor R4‎ (3 F) Media in category "Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta" The following 33 files are in this category, out of 33 total. [9], Lefty is a regulator of TGFβ and is involved in the axis patterning during embryogenesis. In human The TGF beta ligand binds to a type II receptor dimer, which recruits a type I receptor dimer forming a hetero-tetrameric complex with the ligand. TGF beta signaling is involved in several cellular processes that include growth, development, wound healing, cell differentiation and cell death (apoptosis) (1). Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines. It lacks an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase domain and hence is a pseudoreceptor. References Further reading. [3] LAPs contain an RGD motif which is recognized by vast majority of αV containing integrins,[26] and αVβ6 integrin can activate TGF-β1 by binding to the RGD motif present in LAP-β1 and LAP-β 3. The disorder is marked by aneurysms in the aorta, often in children, and the aorta may also undergo sudden dissection in the weakened layers of the wall of the aorta. This article on a gene on human chromosome 11 is a stub. It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions, including the control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. [5][6][7] It is a tumor suppressor gene. Excess TGF-beta 1 competes for binding of radioiodinated TGF-beta 1 in a dose-dependent manner and is more effective than TGF-beta 2. It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions, including the control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Tento soubor využívají následující wiki: Využití na en.wikipedia.org User talk:GAThrawn22; TGF beta signaling pathway; Upstream and downstream (transduction) User:SamSenatore/Upstream and downstream (transduction) Využití na en.wikiversity.org Portal:Molecular Biology; Využití na es.wikipedia.org Vía de señalización del TGF-beta In spite of the wide range of cellular processes that the TGFβ signaling pathway regulates, the process is relatively simple. It has features similar to Marfan syndrome and Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a potent cell regulatory polypeptide homodimer of 25kD. Nos mamíferos existen oito Smad agrupadas en tres subfamilias: [9] As Smad reguladas polo receptor que inclúen SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD5 e SMAD8/9 [10]A Smad mediadora común que inclúe só ao SMAD4, e que interacciona con R-SMAD para participar na vía de sinalización [11]As Smad antagonistas ou inhibitorias que inclúen as SMAD6 e SMAD7, as cales bloquean a activación de R … Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines.It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions, including the control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis.In humans, TGF-β1 is encoded by the TGFB1 gene. They also regulate many hormones including pituitary, gonadal and hypothalamic hormones as well as insulin. 265–273, Kulkarni, A. [6], Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a matricellular glycoprotein found in plasma of healthy patients with levels in the range of 50–250 ng/ml. [13] It however may serve to enhance the binding of TGF beta ligands to TGF beta type II receptors by binding TGFβ and presenting it to TGFBR2. The Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1) is a Protein Coding gene. One of the downstream targets of TGF β signaling, GIPC, binds to its PDZ domain, which prevents its proteosomal degradation, which subsequently increases TGFβ activity. In spite of the wide range of cellular processes that the TGFβ signaling pathway regulates, the process is relatively simple. Transforming growth factor beta receptor I is a membrane-bound receptor protein for the TGF beta superfamily of signaling ligands. These mutations produced phenotypes that were similar to phenotypes seen in TGF-β1 knockout mice. [27] Upon binding, it induces adhesion-mediated cell forces that are translated into biochemical signals which can lead to liberation/activation of TGFb from its latent complex. The transforming growth factor βs. Some of the known activating pathways are cell or tissue specific, while some are seen in multiple cell types and tissues. [9] It has been demonstrated that Chordin and Noggin dorsalize mesoderm. Play media. It[clarification needed] enhances the inhibitory action of SMAD7 while reducing the transcriptional activities of SMAD2. Follistatin inhibits Activin, which it binds. Transforming growth factor, beta receptor II is a TGF beta receptor. O TGF-β actúa sinérxicamente co TGF alfa ao inducir a transformación tumoral de células. [6] SARA recruits an R-SMAD. TGF-β receptor je membránový, obvykle dimerický receptor, který váže TGF-β (transforming growth factor beta) a převádí signál dále směrem dovnitř buňky. They are involved in a multitude of cellular functions including osteogenesis, cell differentiation, anterior/posterior axis specification, growth, and homeostasis. O factor de crecemento transformante beta (TGF-β, do inglés Transforming Growth Factor beta) é unha proteína citocina multifuncional que pertence á superfamilia do TGF-β, que comprende tres isoformas principais desta proteína (TGF-β1-2-3) e moitas outras proteínas de sinalización producidas por todas as liñaxes de células brancas do sangue. Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines. Mice Noggin-/- have excess cartilage and lacked joint formation.[9]. Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTBP3 gene. [9], BMP and activin membrane bound inhibitor (BAMBI), has a similar extracellular domain as type I receptors. Er ist namensgebend für die TGF-Signalwege.TGF spielen eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der embryonalen Entwicklung und der Differenzierung von Zellen und Geweben.Sie werden in verschiedene Gruppen eingeteilt: in die TGFα sowie die TGFβ. TGF beta's, Activins, Nodals and some GDFs are mediated by SMAD2 and SMAD3, while BMPs, AMH and a few GDFs are mediated by SMAD1, SMAD5 and SMAD9. In spite of the wide range of cellular processes that the TGFβ signaling pathway regulates, the process is relatively simple. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left side of murine embryos and subsequently plays a role in left-right specification. Like other SMADs they have an MH1 and an MH2 domain. Clases. Este receptor de TGF-beta 1 forma un complejo heterodimérico con el receptor de TGF-beta 2 cuando se encuentra unido al TGF-beta, transduciendo la señal desde la superficie celular al citoplasma.Este receptor posee actividad serina/treonina quinasa.Se han asociado mutaciones de este gen con el síndrome de Loeys-Dietz (LDAS). Two such proteins that mediate the TGF beta pathway include SARA (The SMAD anchor for receptor activation) and HGS (Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate). Members of the DAN family of proteins also antagonize TGF beta family members. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. Signaling pathway involving transforming growth factor beta proteins, Growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-2, "Nodal and ALK7 inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in human trophoblast cells", "The role of internalization in transforming growth factor beta1-induced Smad2 association with Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) and Smad2-dependent signaling in human mesangial cells", "Lefty inhibits receptor-regulated Smad phosphorylation induced by the activated transforming growth factor-beta receptor", "A novel mechanism for regulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling. Phosphorylation induces a conformational change in the MH2 domain of the R-SMAD and its subsequent dissociation from the receptor complex and SARA.[8]. B., Huh, C. G., Becker, D., Geiser, A., Lyght, M., Flanders, K. C., Roberts, A. It is a type of protein, known as a cytokine, which is involved in cell differentiation, embryogenesis and development.It belongs to a large family of cytokines called the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily, which includes the TGF-β family, Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), inhibins and activins. [1 It is a multifunctional signaling molecule with more than 40 related family members. [5] The TGF-β activation process involves the release of the LLC from the matrix, followed by further proteolysis of the LAP to release TGF-β to its receptors. O factor de crecemento transformante beta (TGF-β, do inglés Transforming Growth Factor beta) é unha proteína citocina multifuncional que pertence á superfamilia do TGF-β, que comprende tres isoformas principais desta proteína (TGF-β1-2-3) e moitas outras proteínas de sinalización producidas por todas as liñaxes de células brancas do sangue. Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines. There are essentially two intracellular pathways involving these R-SMADs. TGF beta receptor 2 consists of a C-terminal protein kinase domain and an N-terminal ectodomain. 419–472, P. ten Dijke and C.S. It has features similar to Marfan syndrome and Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. [10] After it is synthesized, the TGF-β homodimer interact with a Latency Associated Peptide (LAP)[a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product] forming a complex called Small Latent Complex (SLC). TGFBR2 is its human gene. Transforming growth factor beta type 1 (TGF beta-1) belongs to the superfamily of TGF beta proteins which includes bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), avidins, inhibins, TGF beta proteins and several others. In spite of the wide range of cellular processes that the TGFβ signaling pathway regulates, the process is relatively simple. They play a key role in the regulation of TGF beta signaling and are involved in negative feedback. The type II receptor is a serine/threonine receptor kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of the Type I receptor. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions.In spite of the wide range of cellular processes that the TGFβ signaling pathway regulates, the process is relatively simple. TGF-β menstimulasi pertumbuhan pembuluh darah walaupun menghambat proliferasi sel endotelial dan merupakan senyawa kemotaktis yang kuat bagi makrofaga, sehingga pada sel tumor sering dijumpai rasio makrofaga yang sangat tinggi. Nodal binds to activin A receptor, type IIB ACVR2B. Functional modulation of type III TGF-beta receptor expression through interaction with the PDZ domain protein, GIPC", TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-BETA RECEPTOR, TYPE III; TGFBR3 - 600742, "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling through negative regulation of inhibitory Smads", Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=TGF_beta_signaling_pathway&oldid=992219428, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 03:26. This complex remains in the cell until it is bound by another protein called Latent TGF-β-Binding Protein (LTBP), forming a larger complex called Large Latent Complex (LLC). In: Sporn, M.B. It may also serve as an inhibin coreceptor to ActivinRII. Excess TGF-beta 1 competes for binding of radioiodinated TGF-beta 1 in a dose-dependent manner and is more effective than TGF-beta 2. Este receptor de TGF-beta 1 forma un complejo heterodimérico con el receptor de TGF-beta 2 cuando se encuentra unido al TGF-beta, transduciendo la señal desde la superficie celular al citoplasma.Este receptor posee actividad serina/treonina quinasa.Se han asociado mutaciones de este gen con el síndrome de Loeys-Dietz (LDAS). Den är involverad bland annat i cellöverlevnad, celldifferentiering och celltillväxt, bland annat hos utvecklande embryo men även hos mogna celler. The TGF beta superfamily of ligands include: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), Growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), Activin, Nodal and TGFβ's. MMP-9 and MMP-2 are known to cleave latent TGF-β. There are two other SMADs which complete the SMAD family, the inhibitory SMADs (I-SMADS), SMAD6 and SMAD7. [8] The LAP complex contains a protease-sensitive hinge region which can be the potential target for this liberation of TGF-β. The phosphorylated RSMAD/coSMAD complex enters the nucleus where it binds transcription promoters/cofactors and causes the transcription of DNA. TGF-β (z angl. Es wird vermutet, dass TGF-β eine Schlüsselrolle bei der Pathogenese der strahlenbedingten Lungenfibrose einnimmt, eventuell lässt sich durch Antagonisierung von TGF-β eine solche Entzündung verhindern. Noggin plays a key role in cartilage and bone patterning. B., Sporn, M. B., Ward, J. M., Karlsson, S. (1993) Transforming growth factor β 1 null mutation in mice causes, "Tumor cell interactions with the extracellular matrix during invasion and metastasis", "Cell surface-localized matrix metalloproteinase-9 proteolytically activates TGF-beta and promotes tumor invasion and angiogenesis", "Latent transforming growth factor-beta 1 associates to fibroblast extracellular matrix via latent TGF-beta binding protein", "Human transforming growth factor-β complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells", "Latent transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) binding proteins: orchestrators of TGF-β availability", "Processing of transforming growth factor β 1 precursor by human furin convertase J", "Disruption of the gene encoding the latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein 4 (LTBP-4) causes abnormal lung development, cardiomyopathy, and colorectal cancer", "Specific sequence motif of 8-Cys repeats of TGF-beta binding proteins, LTBPs, creates a hydrophobic interaction surface for binding of small latent TGF-beta", "Proteolytic activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta from fibroblast-conditioned medium", "Thrombospondin causes activation of latent transforming growth factor- beta secreted by endothelial cells by a novel mechanism", "Inactivation of the integrin beta 6 subunit gene reveals a role of epithelial integrins in regulating inflammation in the lung and skin", "Targeted disruption of the mouse transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene results in multifocal inflammatory disease", "Alpha V integrins and TGF-beta-induced EMT: a circle of regulation", "Interactions between growth factors and integrins: latent forms of transforming growth factor-β are ligands for the integrin αvβ1", "Review of the activation of TGF-β in immunity", "the integrin alpha(v)beta8 mediates epithelial homeostasis through MT1-MMP-dependent activation of TGF-beta1", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=TGF_beta_Activation&oldid=994508697, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 02:17. It can then either form a receptor complex with activin A receptor, type IB (ACVR1B) or with activin A receptor, type IC (ACVR1C).[3]. and Sporn, M.B., 1990. Er ist namensgebend für die TGF-Signalwege.TGF spielen eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der embryonalen Entwicklung und der Differenzierung von Zellen und Geweben.Sie werden in verschiedene Gruppen eingeteilt: in die TGFα sowie die TGFβ.