[4][5] Marx did not object to a spiritual life and thought it was necessary. - Karl Heinrich Marx wurde am 05.05.1818 in Trier geboren, ursprünglich waren sowohl Vater als auch Mutter jüdischen Glaubens - Vater Heinrich Marx Jurist, konnte jedoch wegen seines jüdischen Glaubens die Praxis nicht weiterführen und konvertierte mit der Familie 1824 zum evangelischen Glaubenà prägend für Marx′ Verhältnis zur Religion Has not Christianity declaimed against private property, against marriage, against the State? [36] On the other hand, some orthodox Jews, including a number of prominent religious figures, actively supported either anarchist or Marxist versions of communism. According to Marx, religion can only be understood in relation to other social systems and the economic structures of society. 2 (Mar., 2007), pp. Marx came from a Jewish background, but his father converted to Lutheranism to avoid losing his work as a lawyer in anti-Semitic Prussia. 'Reading 'Opium of the People': Expression, Protest and the Dialectics of Religion'. These two facts created a division of labor and separation of classes based on power and wealth. While not all communists are in full agreement with Marxism, communists share the Marxist critique of capitalism. According to Marx, religion is an expression of material realities and economic injustice. Marx joined the “Young Hegelians” (with Bruno Bauer and others) who were not simply disciples, but also critics of Hegel. This can be fine, but only if you are also trying to solve the underlying causes of the pain. The Marxist ethos that aims for unity reflects the Christian universalist teaching that humankind is one and that there is only one god who does not discriminate among people. Marx und Engels Zusammenfassung. Whatever one’s conclusion about the accuracy or validity of Marx’s ideas on religion, we should recognize that he provided an invaluable service by forcing people to take a hard look at the social web in which religion always occurs. Advocates of Christian communism argue that it was taught by Jesus and practiced by the Apostles themselves. Karl Marx was a German philosopher who attempted to examine religion from an objective, scientific perspective. The confrontation between them is unavoidable because those classes are driven by historical forces beyond anyone’s control. Christian clergy and Muslim imams were executed. Although the ideas later acquired the term “Marxism,” it must always be remembered that Marx did not come up with them entirely on his own. The Christian and Muslim communities were among the most persecuted as well. Marx and Bruno Bauer were invited to be the chief contributors, and in October 1842 Marx became editor-in-chief and moved from Bonn to Cologne. According to Marx, religion is one of those social institutions which are dependent upon the material and economic realities in a given society. To understand Marx’s critiques of religion and economic theories, it is important to understand a little bit about where he came from, his philosophical background, and how he arrived at some of his beliefs about culture and society. Unity in this really revolutionary struggle of the oppressed class for the creation of a paradise on earth is more important to us than unity of proletarian opinion on paradise in heaven.[12]. Grundlagen der Soziologie (319.000 ) Akademisches Jahr. Karl Marx als Student 1836 -- Public Domain, via Wikimedia Commons. Economic realities prevent them from finding true happiness in this life, so religion tells them this is OK because they will find true happiness in the next life. The Khmer Rouge forced Muslims to eat pork, which they regard as an abomination. 8 (Dec., 2000), pp. At the same time, Marx saw religion as a form of protest by the working classes against their … [39], Buddhism has been said to be compatible with communism given that both can be interpreted as atheistic and arguably share some similarities regarding their views of the world of nature and the relationship between matter and mind. Karl Marx was born and raised in Trier, a city that was then in the Kingdom of Prussia but now occupies southwestern Germany on the French border. Nonetheless, Lenin allowed Christians and other religious people in the Bolshevik Party. Mai 1818 geboren und wuchs gemeinsam mit fünf Geschwistern bei seinen Eltern und in Trier auf. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. A second problem is his claim that religion is wholly determined by material and economic realities. The reason is that his critique of religion forms simply one piece of his overall theory of society—thus, understanding his critique of religion requires some understanding of his critique of society in general. Although it might profess valuable principles, it sides with the oppressors. Karl Marx und Friedrich Engels. In the beginning, people worked together in unity, and it wasn’t so bad. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. We do not have to restrict ourselves to the idea that religion is only dependent upon economics and nothing else, such that the actual doctrines of religions are almost irrelevant. 303-329, Lavinia Stan and Lucian Turcescu. [42], In India, B. R. Ambedkar wrote in his essay Buddha or Karl Marx that "[t]he Russians are proud of their Communism. [37], Analysis reveals that the Baháʼí Faith as both a doctrinal manifest and as a present-day emerging organised community is highly cooperative in nature with elements that correspond to various threads of Marxist thought, anarchist thought and more recent liberational thought innovations. About half the people, including members of the ruling Communist Party and high-level government officials, professed atheism. [13] However, importance was placed on secularism and non-violence towards the religious: But the campaign against the backwardness of the masses in this matter of religion, must be conducted with patience and considerateness, as well as with energy and perseverance. During the late 19th century and also when Albania became a state, religions were suppressed in order to better unify Albanians. All modern religions and churches, all and of every kind of religious organizations are always considered by Marxism as the organs of bourgeois reaction, used for the protection of the exploitation and the stupefaction of the working class.[11]. In diesem Zusammenhang ist Marx´ berühmt gewordener Ausspruch über Religion als Opium des Volkes zu sehen: In reality, they are expressions of class interest and class conflict. Religion. It has no independent history but is instead the creature of productive forces. Karl Marx "Die Unvereinbarkeit der Religion mit den Menschenrechten liegt so wenig im Begriff der Menschenrechte, daß das Recht, religiös zu sein, auf beliebige Weise religiös zu sein, den Kultus seiner besonderen Religion auszuüben, vielmehr ausdrücklich unter die Menschenrechte gezählt wird. Karl Marx war entgegen oft verbreiteter Meinung zwar nicht der Erfinder des Kommunismus, aber Begründer des Marxismus der wohl bekanntesten Form des Kommunismus. 58, No. In particular, Jose Porfirio Miranda found Marx and Engels to be consistently opposed to deterministic materialism and broadly sympathetic towards Christianity and towards the text of the Bible, although disbelieving in a supernatural deity. [citation needed] The 1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China guaranteed "freedom of religion" with a number of restrictions. Marx’s opinion was that religion is an illusion that provides reasons and excuses to keep society functioning just as it is. During the Red Scare in the United States in the 1950s, a representative of the American Jewish Committee assured the powerful House Committee on Un-American Activities that "Judaism and communism are utterly incompatible". [citation needed], In contrast with the brutal repression of the sangha undertaken in Cambodia, the Communist government of Laos has not sought to oppose or suppress Buddhism in Laos to any great degree, rather since the early days of the Pathet Lao communist officials have sought to use the influence and respect afforded to Buddhist clergy to achieve political goals while discouraging religious practices seen as detrimental to Marxist aims. Philosophy of Art, Beauty, Perception. As he wrote in his famous Theses on Feuerbach: “The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point, however, is to change it.”. Diese Einleitung hat er 1844 in der zusammen mit Arnold Ruge herausgegebenen Zeitschrift Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher veröffentlicht. [3] Some recent scholarship has suggested that "opium of the people" is itself a dialectical metaphor, a "protest" and an "expression" of suffering. The Romanian Orthodox Church and Post-Communist Democratisation. In this context, Communism thus has two goals: First it is supposed to explain these realities to people unaware of them; second, it is supposed to call people in the labor classes to prepare for the confrontation and revolution. Other religions, which were practiced by a relatively small number of believers, included Buddhism and Shamanism. [44] In addition, another criticism is that communism is in itself a religion. While liberation theology was most influential in Latin America, it has also been developed in other parts of the world such as black theology in the United States and South Africa, Palestinian liberation theology, Dalit theology in India and Minjung theology in South Korea. Für den Philosophen und Ökonomen Karl Marx ist die historische Entwicklung einer Gesellschaft immer eine Geschichte von Klassenkämpfen. Marx abandoned the idea of an academic career. What is Aesthetics? Religion: Opium des Volkes (Karl Marx) Religionen haben etwas Gemeinsames: Ihre Entstehung verdanken Sie dem Ende. Two important ideas which developed bear mentioning here: First, that economic realities are the determining factor for all human behavior; and second, that all of human history is that of class struggle between those who own things and those who do not own things but must instead work to survive. Marx had a special word for all of the work that goes into developing those institutions: ideology. Religion kann von den einzelnen gebraucht werden als Beruhigung, Opium, als Flucht aus der Wirklichkeit. It is used by oppressors to make people feel better about the distress they experience due to being poor and exploited. Before the 18th century, most answers were framed in purely theological and religious terms, assuming the truth of Christian revelations and proceeding from there. Marxist sociology and Marxist economics have no connection to religious issues and make no assertions about such things. Hegel’s philosophy had a decisive influence upon Marx’s own thinking and later theories. Examples include Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag, an outspoken libertarian communist, Russian revolutionary and territorialist leader Isaac Steinberg and Rabbi Abraham Bik, an American communist activist. Denn der Mensch hängt an seinem Leben, und der Tot soll nicht das Ende sein müssen. Second, the common experience is that the value of a produced object lies not with the labor put into it but in the subjective estimation of a potential purchaser. Marx’s wife died on December 2, 1881, and on March 14, 1883, Marx passed away peacefully in his armchair. No number of pamphlets and no amount of preaching can enlighten the proletariat, if it is not enlightened by its own struggle against the dark forces of capitalism. First, Marx doesn’t spend much time looking at religion in general; instead, he focuses on the religion with which he is most familiar, Christianity. Im späten 18. "Religion is the opium of the people " is one of the most frequently paraphrased statements of German sociologist and economic theorist Karl Marx. [24] Though resisted by the Royal Lao Government, these efforts were fairly successful and resulted in increased support for the Pathet Lao, particularly in rural communities. Objects have only the value of whatever people are ultimately willing to pay; some might pay more for the raw wood, some might pay more for the ugly sculpture. Marx is not entirely without sympathy: people are in distress and religion does provide solace, just as people who are physically injured receive relief from opiate-based drugs. His comments do hold for other religions with similar doctrines of a powerful god and happy afterlife, they do not apply to radically different religions. Ein Beitrag von Moritz und Alex. [14], The Soviet Union was an atheist state[15][16][17] in which religion was largely discouraged and at times heavily persecuted. This is not true. Nachdem er das Gymnasium mit Bestnoten abgeschlossen hatte, studierte er nach Vorbild seines Vaters einige Monate Rechtswissenschaften. If Marx is correct that all value comes from labor, then the sculpture should have more value than the raw wood—but that is not necessarily true. A worker could, in theory, take a beautiful piece of raw wood and, after many hours, produce a terribly ugly sculpture. Much as capitalism takes our productive labor and alienates us from its value, religion takes our highest ideals and aspirations and alienates us from them, projecting them onto an alien and unknowable being called a god. This has two flaws. Marx’s analysis and critique of religion "Religion is the opium of the Masses" ("Die Religion ist das Opium des Volkesis") is perhaps one of the most famous and most quoted by theist and atheist alike. ", "Bolsheviks and Islam Part 3: Islamic communism", "The Seforim Blog – All about Seforim – New and Old, and Jewish Bibliography", "Dalai Lama Answers Questions on Various Topics", https://www.mea.gov.in/Images/attach/amb/Volume_03.pdf, "Constructing "Godless Communism": Religion, Politics, and Popular Culture, 1954-1960. This caused Max Weber to theorize that religious institutions end up creating new economic realities. This is the context in which all human social institutions develop, including religion. Unterdrücker und Unterdrückte stehen stets in einem Gegensatz zueinander, der (mal offen, mal versteckt) in einem Klassenkampf ausgetragen wird. 1119-1139, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, 1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Religious persecution in Communist Romania, Freedom of religion in Romania § Socialist Republic of Romania, House Committee on Un-American Activities, "Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right", "Opium as Dialectics of Religion: Metaphor, Expression and Protest", "The full story: on Marxism and religion", "About the attitude of the working party toward the religion", Protest for Religious Rights in the USSR: Characteristics and Consequences, Restructuring Albanian Business Education Infrastructure, "IV.II. He died of respiratory problems in London in 1883. The Roman Catholic cathedral of Phnom Penh was razed. The people working in those systems—developing art, theology, philosophy, etc.—imagine that their ideas come from a desire to achieve truth or beauty, but that is not ultimately true. Marx’s most famous statement about religion comes from a critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Law: This is often misunderstood, perhaps because the full passage is rarely used: the boldface in the above show what is usually quoted. [24], Starting as early as the late 1950s, members of the Pathet Lao sought to encourage support for the communist cause by aligning members of the Lao sangha with the communist opposition. It would be bourgeois narrow-mindedness to forget that the yoke of religion that weighs upon mankind is merely a product and reflection of the economic yoke within society. Then it will detail his critique of religion by means of a … Secularism Vs Secularization: What's the Difference? Karl Marx: Die deutsche Ideologie - Philosophie / Philosophie des 20. Because of his work, it has become impossible to study religion without also exploring its ties to various social and economic forces. Between Moscow and London: Romanian Orthodoxy and National Communism, 1960–1965. In 1841 the government similarly forbade the young Professor Bruno Bauer to lecture at Bonn. His family was Jewish but later converted to Protestantism in 1824 in order to avoid anti-semitic laws and persecution. [24], During its Socialist era, the Romanian government exerted significant control over the Orthodox Church and closely monitored religious activity, as well as promoting atheism among the population. This emphasis on action rather than mere philosophical musings is a crucial point in Marx’s program. Martin Luther preached the ability of each individual to interpret the Bible but sided with aristocratic rulers and against peasants who fought against economic and social oppression. This is the origin of his comment that religion is the “opium of the masses”—but as shall see, his thoughts are much more complex than commonly portrayed. But what does it mean? The Christian Idea of the Messiah. It is the opium of the people. Fortunately, we are not entirely limited to Marx’s simplistic formulations. "[43], Because of the perceived atheistic nature of communism, some have accused communism of persecuting religion. zurück. 2. In some ways, the quote is presented dishonestly because saying “Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature...” leaves out that it is also the “heart of a heartless world.” This is more a critique of society that has become heartless and is even a partial validation of religion that it tries to become its heart. Unterrichtsschritte. Quite often, machines allow for more profit than humans. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. Universität Graz. [30], Christian communism can be seen as a radical form of Christian socialism. [28], In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote: "Nothing is easier than to give Christian asceticism a Socialist tinge. Karl Marx is famous — or perhaps infamous — for writing that "religion is the opium of the people" (which is usually translated as "religion is the opiate of the masses").People who know nothing else about him probably know that he wrote that, but unfortunately few understand what he meant because so few of those familiar with that quote have any understanding of the context. Those social institutions are a superstructure built upon the base of economics, totally dependent upon material and economic realities but nothing else. Weil Marx den Menschen nur als gegenständliches Gattungswesen kannte, nicht wie seit Aristoteles als Vernunftwesen, aber ähnlich wie Nietzsche später die Vernunft leiblich dachte, kann er keine „ewigen Wahrheiten, wie Freiheit, Gerechtigkeit“ denken. Karl Marx (Lebenslauf) Marxistische Religionskritik. The majority of the Islamic faithful were Sunni (with a notable Shia minority, mainly in Azerbaijan), while Judaism also had many followers. This isn’t surprising—those in power have always wished to justify and maintain that power. [13], God-Building was an idea proposed by some prominent early Marxists of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. Karl Marx was a German philosopher, economist, and the least funny of the Marxes. 85, No. Similarly, religion does not fix the underlying causes of people’s pain and suffering—instead, it helps them forget why they are suffering and causes them to look forward to an imaginary future when the pain ceases instead of working to change circumstances now. It should be noted that through most of his life, Marx did not work alone—he had the help of Friedrich Engels who had, on his own, developed a very similar theory of economic determinism. Orthodoxy and State, 1948–49. But throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, a more “naturalistic” approach developed. Karl Marx and Religion: 1841-1846 Kathleen L. Clarkson Dr. L. I. Greenspan vi, 120 A recurrent theme throughout the writings of Karl Marx from 1841 through 1846 is his attack on religion. As interesting and insightful as Marx’s analysis and critiques are, they are not without their problems—historical and economic. It was translated from the German original, "Die Religion... ist das Opium des Volkes" and is often rendered as " religion... is the opiate of the masses." After the failure of various revolutionary movements on the continent, Marx was forced to go to London in 1849. Marx is saying that religion is meant to create illusory fantasies for the poor. Religion ist für ihn Symptom (als Teil des ideologischen Überbaus), nicht Ursache der menschlichen M isere. [45][46], Throughout the Second Red Scare, the fear of the "Godless communist" rooted itself as an epithet and a warning to the United States in a changing global environment. Juli 1804 in Landshut Mensch ist ... endlich unvollkommen zeitlich sündhaft Gott ist ... unendlich vollkommen ewig heilig Projektion Wünsche des Menschen und Glückseligkeitstrieb [32], In the 1950s and the 1960s, liberation theology was the political praxis of Latin American theologians, such as Gustavo Gutiérrez of Peru, Leonardo Boff of Brazil, Juan Luis Segundo of Uruguay and Jon Sobrino of Spain, who made popular the phrase the "Preferential option for the poor". Because of these problems, it would not be appropriate to accept Marx’s ideas uncritically. 59, No. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marxism_and_religion&oldid=995073778, Articles with dead external links from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 02:14. In einem berühmten Ausspruch bezeichnet Marx die Religion deshalb als Opium des Volks. In ihm formuliert Marx die berühmte Sentenz von der Religion als „Opium des Volks“, vor allem aber legt er … To gather support from the masses during World War II, the Stalin government re-opened thousands of temples and extinguished the league of militant atheists. For the majority of Soviet citizens, religion seemed irrelevant. Such elements include, for example, no clergy and themes that relate to mutualism, libertarian socialism and democratic confederalism. [2], According to Howard Zinn, "[t]his helps us understand the mass appeal of the religious charlatans of the television screen, as well as the work of Liberation Theology in joining the soulfulness of religion to the energy of revolutionary movements in miserably poor countries". Criticism has plucked the imaginary flowers on the chain not in order that man shall continue to bear that chain without fantasy or consolation, but so that he shall throw off the chain and pluck the living flower. [26] Starting in the 1960s, the state used religious officials of the Orthodox Church as ambassadors to the West, engaging in dialogue with religious organizations in the United Kingdom.